Here is our science dictionary. (Taken from Glencoe Red Science Text Book)


A / B / C / D/ E / F / G / H / I / J / K / L/ M / N / O / P / Q / R / S / T / V / U / V / W / X / Y / Z

A


Abiotic factors: the non living parts of an ecosystem, including soil, temperature, water, and sunlight.

Abrasion: a form of erosion that occurs when wind blows sediments into rocks, makes pits in the rocks, and produces smooth, polished surfaces.

Acceleration: change in velocity divided by the amount of time needed for the change to take place; occurs when an object speeds up, slows down, or changes direction.

Accuracy: compares a measurement to the true value.

Acid Rain: form of pollution that occurs when gases released by burning oil and coal mix with water in the air to form rain or snow that is strongly acid.

Aerosol: solids, such as dust, salt, and pollen, and liquid droplets, such as sicds, that are suspended in the atmosphere.

Air Mass: large body of air that develops over a particular region of Earth's surface.

Alveoli: grapelike clusters of air sacs at the end of the each bronchiole.

Amniotic Egg: adaptation of reptiles that allows them to reproduce on land; encloses the embryo within a moist environment, protected by a leathery shell, and has a yolk that supplies the embryo with food.

Amplitude: for a transverse wave, one half the distance between a crest and a trough.

Appendage: structure such as a claw, leg or antenna that grows from the body.

Arthropod: balaterally symmetrical animal with jointed appendages, a protective endoskeleton, and a segmented body.

Asexual Reproduction: a type of reproduction, such a budding or regeneration, in which a new organism is produced from a part of another organism by the process of motisis.

Astronomical Unit: unit of measure that equals 150 millions km, which is the mean distance from Earth to the Sun.

Atmosphere: layer of gases surrounding Earth that protects living things from harmful doses of ultraviolet radiation and X-ray radiation and absorbs and distributes warmth.

Atom: A very small particle that makes up most kinds of matter and consists of smaller parts called protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Atomic Mass: Average mass of an atom of an element; its unit of measure is the atomic mass unit (u), which is 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom.

Atomic Number: Number of protons in the nucleus of each atom of a given element; is the top number in the periodic table.

Average Speed: equals the distance traveled divided by he amount of time it takes to travel that distance.

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B


Bacteria: smallest organisms on Earth, each of which is made up of only one cell.

Bar Graph: a type of graph that uses bars of varying sizes to show the relationship among variables.

Biosphere: the part of Earth that supports life, including the top portion of Earth's crust, the atmosphere, and all the water on Earth's surface.

Biotic Factors: the living parts of an ecosystem.

Boiling Point: temperature at which a substance in a liquid state becomes a gas.

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C


Capillary: microscopic blood vessel.

Carnivore: meat-eating animal with sharp canine teeth specialized to rip and tear flesh.

Cartilage: tough, flexible tissue similar to bone but is softer and less brittle.

Catalyst: substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction without any permanent change to its own structure.

Cell Membrane: flexible structure that holds a cell together, forms a boundary between the cell and its environment, and helps control what enters and leaves the cell.

Cell Wall: structure of plants, algae, fungi, and many types of bacteria that supports and protects the cell membrane.

Charging by Contact: transfer of electric charge between objects in contact.

Charging by Induction: rearrangement of electric charge in an object due to a nearby electric field.

Chemical Change: change in which the identity of a substance changes due to its chemical properties and forms a new substance or substances.

Chemical Property: any characteristic, such as the ability to burn, that allows a substance to undergo a change that results in a new substance.

Chemical Weathering: process in which the chemical composition of rocks is changed by agents such as natural acids and oxygen.

Chemosynthesis: process that occurs in deep ocean water, where sunlight does not penetrate, in which bacteria make food from dissolved sulfur compounds.

Chloroplast: green organelle in a plant's leaf cells where most photosynthesis takes place.

Chordate: animal that at some time in its development has a notochord, nerve cord, and pharyngeal pouches.

Circle Graph: a type of graph that shows the parts of a whole; sometimes called a pie graph, each piece of which represents a percentage of the total.

Cloning: making copies of organisms, each of which is a clone that received DNA from only one parent.

Closed Circulatory System: a type of blood-circulation system in which blood is transported through blood vessels rather than washing over the organs.

Cnidarian: radially symmetrical, hollow-bodied animal with two cell layers organized into tissues.

Comet: large body of ice and rock that orbits the Sun; develops a bright, glowing tail if it passes close to the Sun.

Community: all the populations that live in an ecosystem.

Compound: A substance produced when elements combine and whose properties are different from each of the elements in it.

Compound Machine: a machine that is a combination of simple machines.

Compression Wave: a type of mechanical wave in which matter in the medium moves forward and backward along the direction the wave travels.

Conduction: transfer of energy the collisions between the atoms in a material.

Conductor: material in which electric charges can move easily.

Constant: variable that is not changed in an experiment.

Constellation: group of stars that forms a pattern in the sky and can be named after a real of imaginary animal, object, or person.

Consumer: an organism that obtains food by eating other organisms.

Contour Feather: strong, lightweight feather that gives a bird its shape and coloring and can help the bird steer, attract a mate, and avoid predators.

Controlled Experiment: involves changing one factor and observing its effect on one thing while keeping all other things constant.

Convection: transfer of heat that occurs when particles move between regions or objects that have different temperature.

Creep: a process in which sediments move slowly downhill.

Critical Thinking: involves using knowledge and thinking skills to evaluate evidence and explanations.

Crust: Earth's outermost layer that is thinnest under the oceans and thickest through the mountains and contains all features of Earth's surface.

Crystal: solid material with atoms arranged in a repeating pattern ( a hard mineral that has atoms in repeating patterns)

Cytoplasm: gelatinlike substance inside the cell membrane that contains water, chemicals, and cell parts.

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D


Data: information gathered during an investigation; recorded in the form of descriptions, table, graphs or drawings.

Decomposer: organism that breaks down tissue and releases nutrients and carbon dioxide back into the ecosystem.

Deflation: erosion of land that occurs when wind blows across loose sediments and carries them away, often leaving behind particles too heavy to move.

Density: measurable physical property that can be found by dividing the mass of an object by its volume.

Density Current: circulation pattern in the ocean that forms when a mass of more dense seawater sinks beneath less dense seawater.

Dependent Variable: variable that changes as a result of a change in the independent variable.

Dew Point: temperature at which air is saturated and condensation can occur.

Diffraction: bending of waves around a barrier.

DNA: a chemical inside cells that contains hereditary information and controls how an organism will look and function by controlling which proteins a cell produces.

Down Feather: fluffy feather that traps and keeps air warm against a bird's body.

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E


Earth Science: study of Earth systems and systems in space, including weather and climate systems, and the study of nonliving things such as rocks, oceans and planets.

Eclipse: event that occurs when the Moon moves between the Sun and Earth (solar eclipse), or when Earth moves between the Sun and the Moon (lunar eclipse), and casts a shadow.

Ecology: study of the interactions that take place among organisms and their environment.

Ecosystem: all the living organisms in an area, as well as the nonliving parts of their environment; community of organisms--producers, consumers, and decomposers--that interact with each other and their surroundings.

Ectotherm: cold-blooded animal whose body temperature changes with the temperature of its surrounding environment.

Electric Circuit: closed conducting loop in which electric current can flow continually.

Electric Current: flow of electric charge, measured in amperes

Electric Discharge: movement of static charge from one place to another.

Electric Resistance: measure of how difficult it is for electrons to flow in a material; unit is the ohm.

Electromagnet: A current-carrying wire wrapped around an iron core.

Electromagnetic Induction: Production of electric current by moving a magnet and a wire coil relative to each other.

Electromagnetic Spectrum: arrangement of electromagnetic waves according to their wavelengths.

Electromagnetic Wave: waves that can travel through matter or space; includes radio waves, infrared waves, visible light waves, ultraviolet waves, X rays, and gamma rays.

Electron : Invisible, negatively charged particle located in a cloudlike formation that surrounds the nucleus of an atom.

Element: Natural or synthetic material that cannot be broken down into simpler materials by ordinary means; has unique properties and is generally classified as a metal, nonmetal or metalloid, or nonmetal.

Embryo: the stage of development during the first two months of pregnancy after the zygote attaches to the wall of the uterus.

Endotherm: warm-blooded animal whose body temperature does not change with its surrounding environment.

Endothermic Reaction: chemical reaction that absorbs heat energy.

Energy: ability to cause change.

Erosion: wearing away and removal of rock material that occurs by agents such as gravity, ice, wind,and water.

Estimation: method of making an educated guess at a measurement; using the size of something familiar to guess the size of a new object.

Estivation: period of inactivity during hot, dry weather; in amphibians, involves moving to cooler, more humid areas underground.

Exoskeleton: rigid, protective body covering of an arthopod that supports the body and reduces water loss.

Exothermic Reaction: chemical reaction that releases heat energy.

Extrusive: describes igneous rocks that have small or no crystals and form when melted rock cools quickly on Earth's surface.

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F


Fault: large fracture in ock along which movement occurs.

Fault-Block Mountains: sharp,jagged mountains made of huge, tilted blocks of rock that are separated from surrounding rock by faults and form because of pulling forces.

Fertilization: process in which sperm and egg join, resulting in a new organism.

Fetus: the stage of development after the first two months of pregnancy until birth.

Folded Mountain: mountain that forms by the folding of rock layers caused by compressive forces.

Foliated: describes metamorphic rocks with visible layers of minerals.

Food Chain: series of stages that shows the transfer of energy from producers to consumers and decomposers.

Force: a push or a pull; SI unit is the newton.

Frequency: number of wavelengths that pass a given point in one second; measured in hertz

Friction: force that resists sliding motion between two touching surfaces; always acts opposite to the direction of motion.

Front: boundary that develops where air masses of different temperatures collide; can be cold, warm, stationary, or occluded.


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G


Galaxy: group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity.

Gem: rare, valuable mineral that can be cut and polished.

Gene: small section of DNA on a chromosome that carries information about a trait.

Genetics: study of how traits are passed from parent to offspring.

Gill: organ that allows a water-dwelling animal to exchange carbon dioxide for dissolved oxygen in the water.

Graph: used to collect, organize, and summarize data in a visual way, making it easy to use and understand.


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H


Habitat: place where an organism lives; provides the food, shelter, moisture, temperature, and other factors required for the organism's survival.

Heat: transfer of energy frm one object to another due to a difference in temperature; flows from warmer objects to cooler objects.

Herbivore: plant-eating mammal with incisors specialized to cut vegetation and large, flat molars to grind it.

Heredity: passing on of traits from parents to offspring.

Hibernation: period of inactivity during cold weather; in amphibians, involves burying themselves in mud or leaves.

Humidity: amount of water vapor int he atmosphere.

Hurricane: large storm, up to 970 km in diameter, that begins as a low-pressure area over tropical oceans, has sustained winds that can reach 250 km/hr and gusts up to 300 km/hr.

Hypothesis: reasonable guess that can be tested and is based on what is known and what is observed.

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I


Igneous Rock: intrusive or extrusive rock that is produced when melted rock from inside Earth cools and hardens.

Inclined Plane: a sloped surface or a ramp.

Independent Variable: variable that is changed in an experiment

Inertia: tendency to resist a change in motion.

Infer: to draw a conclusion based on observation.

Inner Core: solid, innermost layer of Earth's interior that is the hottest part of Earth and experiences the greatest amount of pressure.

Instantaneous Speed: speed of an object at any given time.

Insulator: material in which electric charges cannot move easily.

Interference: occurs when two or more waves combine and form a new wave when they overlap.

Intrusive: describes a type of igneous rock that generally contains large crystals and forms when magma cools slowly beneath Earth's surface.

Invertibrate: an animal without a backbone.

Isostasy: principle stating that Earth's lithosphere floats on a plasticlike uppter part of the mantle called the athenosphere.

Isotope: Two or more atoms of the same element that have different number of neutrons in their nuclei.

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K


Kelvin: SI unit for temperature.

Kilogram: SI unit for mass

Kinetic Energy: energy an object has due to its motion.

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L


Landfill: an area where garbage is deposited.

Law of Conservation of Energy: states that energy cannot be created or destroyed but can only be transformed from one form into another.

Law of Conservation of Mass: states that the mass of the products of a chemical change is always the same as the mass of what you started with.

Law of Conservation of Matter: States that matter is not created or destroyed but only changes its form.

Lever: a rod or plank that pivots about a fixed point.

Life Science: study of living systems and how they interact.

Light-Year: about 9.5 trillion km--the distance that light travels in one year--which is used to measure large distances between stars or galaxies.

Limiting Factors: anything that can restrict the size of a population, including living and nonliving features of an ecosystem, such as predators or drought.

Line Graph: a type of graph used to show the relationship between two variables that are numbers on an x-axis and a y-axis.

Lithosphere: rigid layer of Earth about 100 km thick, made of the crust and a part of the upper mantle.

Lunar Highlands: mountainous areas on the Moon that are about 4.5 billion years old.


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M


Magnetic Domain: A group of atoms in a magnetic material with the magnetic poles of the atoms pointing in the same direction.

Mantle: largest layer of Earth's interior that lies above the outer core and is solid yet flows slowly (Chapter 10); thin layer of tissue that covers a mollusk's body and that can secrete a shell. (Chapter 17)

Maria: smooth, dark regions on the Moon that formed when lava flowed onto the Moon's surface.

Marsupial: mammal that gives birth to incompletely developed young that finish developing in their mother's pouch.

Mass: amount of matter in an object, which is measured in kilograms.

Mass Movement: occurs when gravity alone causes rock or sidiment to move down a slope.

Mass Number: Sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.

Matter: Anything that has mass and takes up space.

Measurement: way to describe objects and events with numbers; for example, length, volume, mass, weight, and temperature.

Mechanical Advantage: number of times a machine increases the force applied to it.

Mechanical Wave: a type of wave that can travel only through matter.

Mechanical Weathering: process that breaks rocks down into smaller pieces without changing them chemically.

Medusa: free-swimming, bell-shaped body form in the life cycle of a cnidarian.

Meiosis: process in which sex cells are formed in reproductive organs; involved two divisions of the nucleus, producing four sex cells, each having half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.

Melanin: the pigment that gives your skin color and protects your skin from ultraviolet light.

Melting Point: temperature at which a solid becomes a liquid.

Menstrual Cycle: the monthly cycle of changes in a mature female reproductive system.

Metal: Element that is malleable, ductile, a good conductor of electricity, and generally has a shiny or metallic luster.

Metalloid: element that has characteristics of both metals and nonmetals and is a solid at room temperature.

Metamorphic Rock: new rock that forms when existing rock is heated or squeezed.

Metamorphosis: change of body form that can be complete (egg, larva, pupa, adult) or incomplete (egg, nymph, adult).

Meteorite: any rock from space that survives its plunge through the atmosphere and lands on Earth's surface.

Meter: SI unit for length.

Mineral: inorganic, solid material found in nature that always has the same chemical makeup, atoms arranged in an orderly pattern, and properties such as cleavage and fracture, color, hardness, and streak and luster.

Mitochondria: cell organelles where cellular respiration takes place.

Mitosis: cell division process in which DNA in the nucleus is duplicated and the nucleus divides into two nuclei that contain the same genetic information.

Mixture: A combination of compounds and elements that has not formed a new substance and whose proportions can be changed without changing the mixture's identity.

Model: any representation of an object or an event that is used as a tool for understanding the natural world; can communicate observations and ideas, test predictions, and save time, money and lives.

Mollusk: soft-bodied, bilaterally symmetrical invertebrate with a large, muscular foot, a mantle, and an open circulatory system; usually has a shell.

Monotreme: mammal that lays eggs with tough, leathery shells instead of giving birth to live young.

Muscle: an organ that can relax, contract, and provide force to move your body parts.

Mutation: change in a gene or chromosome that can result from something in the environment or an error in mitosis or meiosis; can be harmful, neutral, or beneficial, and adds variation to the genes of a species.

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N


Natural Resource: parts of Earth's environment, such as water and minerals that are used by living organisms.

Nektons: Marine animals, such as fish and turtles, that actively swin in ocean waters.

Neutron: An uncharged particle located in the nucleus of an atom.

Newton's Laws of Motion: a set of rules developed by Isaac Newton to explain how forces affect the motion of an object.

Niche: the role of an organism in its ecosystem; refers to the unique ways an organism survives, obtains food and shelter, and avoids danger.

Nonfoliated: describes the metamorphic rocks that lack distinct layers or bands.

Nonmetal: Elements that are usually gases or brittle solids and poor conductors of electricity and heat; are the basis of the chemicals of life.

Nonrenewable Resource: natural resource that cannot be replaced by natural processes within 100 years or less.

Nucleus: Positively charged, central part of an atom.

Nutrient: Substance in food that provides for cell development, growth, and repair.

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O


Observatory: building that can house an optical telescope; often has a dome-shaped roof that can be opened for viewing.

Omnivore: plant- and meat-eating animal with incisors that cut vegetables, sharp premolars that chew meat, and molars that grind food.

Open Circulatory System: a type of blood-circulation system that lacks blood vessels and in which blood washes over the organs.

Orbit: curved path followed by a satellite as it revolves around an object.

Ore: material that contains enough of a useful metal that it can be mined and sold at a profit.

Organ: structure made of two or more different tissue types that work together to do a certain job.

Organelles: specialized cells parts that perform a cell's activities.

Organ System: group of organs that work together to perform a certain task.

Outer Core: layer of Earth that lies above the inner core and is thought to be composed mostly of molten metal.

Ovulation: the process each month of an ovary releasing an egg.

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P


Parallel Circuit: circuit that has more than one path of electric current to follow.

Photosynthesis: process by which plants, algae, and many types of bacteria use sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide to make food and oxygen.

Physical Change: change in which the properties of a substance change but the identity of the substance always remains the same.

Physical Property: any characteristic of a material, such as state, color, and volume, that can be observed or measured without changing or attempting to change the material.

Physical Science: study of matter, which is anything that takes up space and has mass, and the study of energy, which is the ability to cause change.

Placental: mammal whose offspring develops inside the female's uterus; has a placenta--a saclike organ--which supplies the embryo with food and oxygen and removes wastes.

Plankton: tiny marine organisms, such as diatoms, that drift in the surface waters of every ocean.

Plate: section of Earth's crust and rigid, upper mantle that moves slowly around on the asthenosphere.

Pollutant: any material that can harm living things by interfering with life processes.

Polyp: vase-shaped, usually sessile body form in the life cycle of a cnidarian.

Population: a group of the same type of organism living in the same place at the same time.

Potential Energy: energy that is stored due to an object's position.

Precipitation: occurs when drops of water or crystals of ice become too large to be suspended in a cloud and fall in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow or hail.

Precision: describes how closely measurements are to each other and how carefully measurements were made.

Pregnancy: the period of development from fertilized egg to birth.

Producer: organism that can make its own food by photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Project Apollo: final stage in the U.S. program to reach the Moon in which Neil Armstrong was the first human to step onto the Moon's surface.

Project Gemini: second stage in the U.S. program to reach the Moon in which an astronaut team connects with another spacecraft in orbit.

Project Mercury: first step in the U.S. program to reach the Moon that orbited a piloted spacecraft around Earth and brought it back safely.

Proton: Positively charged particle located in the nucleus of an atom and that is counted to identify the atomic number.

Pulley: grooved wheel with a rope or cable running throug the groove.

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R


Radiation: energy that is transferred by waves.

Radio Telescope: collects and records radio waves traveling through space; can be used day or night under most weather conditions.

Radula: scratchy, tounguelike organ in many mollusks that has rows of teethlike projections used to scrape and grate food.

Rate: a ratio of two different kinds of measurements; the amount of change on one measurement in a given amount of time.

Recycling: reusing materials after they have been changed into another form, instead of throwing them away.

Reflecting Telescope: optical telescope that uses a concave mirror to focus light and form an image at the focal point.

Reflection: occurs when a wave strikes an object or surface and bounces off.

Reflex: an involuntary, automatic response to a stimulus.

Refracting Telescope: optical telescope that uses a double convex lens to bend light and form an image at the focal point.

Refraction: bending of a wave as it moves from one medium into another medium.

Relative Humidity: measure of the amount of water vapor in the air compared with the amount that could be held at a specific temperature.

Renewable Resource: natural resource that can be replaced by natural processes within 100 years or less.

Respiratory System: the structures and organs that help move oxygen into the body and waste gases out of the body.

Revolution: movement of Earth around the Sun, which takes a year to complete.

Rock: solid inorganic material that is usually made of two or more minerals and can be metamorphic, sedimentary, or igneous. ( Rock: a solid material that is made up of two or more minerals.

Rock Cycle: diagram that shows the slow, continuous process of rocks changing from one type to another.

Rocket: special engine thsa can work in space and burns liquid or solid fuel.

Rotation: spinning of Earth on its axis, which occurs once every 24 hours, produces day and night, and causes the planets and stars to appear to rise and set.

Run off: water that flows over Earth's surface.

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S


Salinity: measure of dissolved solids, or salts, in seawater.

Satellite: any natural or artifical object that revolves around another object.

Science: way of learning more about the natural world that provides possible explanations to questions and involves using a collection of skills.

Scientific Law: a rule that describes a pattern in nature but does not try to explain why something happens.

Scientific Theory: a possible explanation for repeatedly observed patterns in nature supported by observations and results from many investigations.

Sedimentary Rock: a type of rock made from pieces of other rocks, dissolved minerals, or plant and animal matter that collect to form rock layers.

Series Circuit: circuit that has only one path for electric current to follow.

Sex Cells: specialized cells--female eggs and male sperm--that are produced by the process of meiosis, carry DNA, and join in sexual reproduction.

Sexual Reproduction: a type of reproduction in which a new organism is produced from the DNA of two sex cells (egg and sperm)

SI: International System of Units, related by multiples of ten, designed to provide a worldwide standard of physical measurement.

Simple Machine: device that makes work easier with only one movement; can change the size or direction of a force, and includes the wedge, screw, lever, wheel and axle, pulley, and inclined plane.

Skeletal System: all the bones in your body.

Slump: occurs when a mass of rock or sediment moves downhill along a curved surface.

Soil: mixure of weathered rock, organic matter, water, and air that evolves over time and supports the growth of plant life.

Solar System: system of nine planets and numerous other objects that orbit our sun, all held in place by the sun's gravity.

Solid Waste: solid or near-solid items disposed of as garbase, including glass, paper, metal, cloth, and spoiled food.

Space Probe: instrument that travels far into the solar system and gathers data that it send back to Earth.

Space Shuttle: reusable spacecraft that can carry cargo, astronauts, and satellites to and from space.

Space Station: large facility with living quarters, work and exercise areas, and equipment and support systems for humans to live and work in space and conduct research.

Sperm: the male reproductive cells.

States of Matter: physical property that is dependent on both temperature and pressure and occurs in four forms--solid, liquid, gas and plasma.

Static Charge: imbalance of electric charge on an object

Subduction: a type of plate movement that occurs when one plate sinks beneath another plate.

Substance: Matter that has the same composition and properties throughout.

Supernova: very bright explosion of the outer part of a supergiant that takes place after its core collapses.

Surface Current: ocean current that usually moves only the upper few hundred meters of seawater.

Symmetry: arrangement of individual body parts; can be radial (arranged around a central point) or bilateral (mirror-image parts).

System: collection of structures, cycles, and processes that relate to and interact with each other.

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T


Table: presents information in rows and columns, making it easier to read and understand.

Technology: use of science to help people in some way.

Temperature: measure of the average kinetic energy of the atoms in an object.

Themocline: layer of ocean water that begins at a depth of about 200 m and becomes progressively colder with increasing depth.

Tide: the alternate rise and fall of sea level caused by the gravitational attractions of the Moon and Sun.

Tissue: group of similar cells that all do the same work.

Topography: configuration of surface features, including position and slope; also influences the types of soils that develop.

Tornado: violent, whirling wind, usually less than 200 m in diameter, that travels in a narrow path over land and can be highly destructive.

Transverse Wave: a type of mechanical wave in which the wave energy causes matter in the medium to move up and down or back and forth at right angles to the direction the wave travels.

Troposphere: layer of the atmosphere that is closest to Earth's surface and contains nearly all of its clouds and weather.

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U


Upwarped Mountain: mountain that forms when forces inside Earth push up the crust.

Upwelling: ocean current that moves cold, deep water to the ocean surface.

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V


Vacuole: balloonlike cell organelle in the cytoplasm that can store food, water, and other substances.

Variable: factor that can be changed in an experiment.

Variations: different ways that a trait can appear--for example, differences in height, hair color, or weight.

Velocity: speed of an object and its direction of motion; changes when speed changes, direction of motion changes, or both change.

Volcanic Mountain: mountain that forms when magma is forced upward and flows onto Earth's surface.

Voltage: a measure of the amount of electrical potential energy transferred by an electric charge as it moves from one point to another in a circuit.

Volume: the amount of space an object occupies measured in cubic meters.

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W


Water Cycle: never-ending cycle in which water circulates between Earth's surface and the atmosphere through the processes of evaporation, transpiration, precipitation, and condensation.

Wave: rhythmic disturbance that carries energy but not matter.

Wavelength: for a transverse wave, the distance between the tops of two adjacent crests or the bottoms of two adjacent troughs; for a compressional wave, the distance from the centers of adjacent rarefactions or adjacent compressions.

Weather: current condition of the atmosphere including cloud cover, temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity, and air pressure.

Weathering: natural mechanical or chemical process that causes rocks to change by breaking them down and causing them to crumble.

Weight: a measurement of force that depends on gravity; measured in newtons.

Work: is done when an applied force causes an object to move in the direction of the force.

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